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TEDの英語プレゼンでリスニング: The forgotten history of autism

TEDの英語プレゼンでリスニング The forgotten history of autism

40年前、自閉症患者は5千人に1人だと言われていました。現在は68人に1人が自閉症かそれに関する症状を持っていると言われます。なぜこの様な急激な増加があるのでしょうか。Steve Silbermanがその理由を語ります。プレゼンの一部は翻訳し、訳立つ英語表現は抜粋しています。動画は記事の下から見られます。

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Just after Christmas last year, 132 kids in California got the measles by either visiting Disneyland or being exposed to someone who’d been there. The virus then hopped the Canadian border, infecting more than 100 children in Quebec. One of the tragic things about this outbreak is that measles, which can be fatal to a child with a weakened immune system, is one of the most easily preventable diseases in the world.An effective vaccine against it has been available for more than half a century, but many of the kids involved in the Disneyland outbreak had not been vaccinated because their parents were afraid of something allegedly even worse: autism.

But wait — wasn’t the paper that sparked the controversy about autism and vaccines debunked, retracted, and branded a deliberate fraud by the British Medical Journal? Don’t most science-savvy people know that the theory that vaccines cause autism is B.S.? I think most of you do, but millions of parents worldwide continue to fear that vaccines put their kids at risk for autism.




measles: はしか

hop: 跳ねる; 飛び越える

outbreak: (病気の)大流行

fatal: 死を招く、命に関わる

vaccinate: ワクチン接種をする

debunk: 誤りを暴く

retract: 取り消す、撤回する 

brand: 汚名をつける

savvy: 精通している、よく知っている

B.S.: たわごと (bullshitの略です)


Lorna and her colleague Judith Gould
decided to do something that should have been done 30 years earlier. They undertook a study of autism prevalence in the general population. They pounded the pavement in a London suburb called Camberwell to try to find autistic children in the community. What they saw made clear that Kanner’s model was way too narrow, while the reality of autism was much more colorful and diverse. Some kids couldn’t talk at all, while others waxed on at length about their fascination with astrophysics, dinosaurs or the genealogy of royalty. In other words, these children didn’t fit into nice, neat boxes, as Judith put it, and they saw lots of them, way more than Kanner’s monolithic model would have predicted.

At first, they were at a loss to make sense of their data. How had no one noticed these children before? But then Lorna came upon a reference to a paper that had been published in German in 1944, the year after Kanner’s paper, and then forgotten, buried with the ashes of a terrible time that no one wanted to remember or think about.




prevalence: 有病率、罹患率

pound: (道路などを)歩き回る

suburb: 郊外

astrophysics: 天体物理学

dinosaur: 恐竜

genealogy of royalty: 王室の系図 


By coincidence, as Lorna and Judith worked behind the scenes
to reform the criteria, people all over the world were seeing an autistic adult for the first time.Before “Rain Man” came out in 1988, only a tiny, ingrown circle of experts knew what autism looked like,but after Dustin Hoffman’s unforgettable performance as Raymond Babbitt earned “Rain Man” four Academy Awards, pediatricians, psychologists, teachers and parents all over the world knew what autism looked like.



coincidence: 偶然

criteria: 基準、クライテリア

tiny: 小さな

ingrown: 内部に成長した、生まれつきの、内輪の


One way to understand neurodiversity is to think in terms of human operating systems. Just because a P.C. is not running Windows doesn’t mean that it’s broken. By autistic standards, the normal human brain is easily distractable, obsessively social, and suffers from a deficit of attention to detail. To be sure, autistic people have a hard time living in a world not built for them.



distractable: 気が散る

obsessively: 執拗に、強迫観念に取り付かれている

To be sure: もちろん、当然

have a hard time: 苦労する、つらい目にあう


捉え方によっては、自閉症患者の数すらも変わってしまうということですね。人間をOSとして捉えてみようというSteve Silbermanの提案には私も全面的に賛成です。みんながWindows使ってるわけじゃないですもんね。



 - リスニング